Technical Archive

Judo Belize Federation Technical Archive for Beginners

Things you must master to get a black belt (1st dan)

CONTENTS (Click to Jump)

* PLEASE check both of a description and a video for each item (Video and text description are complementary relationship).  

Seiryokuzenyou.001
Teachings of Jigoro KANO

1. BASIC [23 items]

1-1. Wearing JUDOGI

  • Both of (1) Tying belt from center of the belt, and (2) tying belt from one side of the belt, are accepted. It is accepted that belt is crossed on back in (1). If they can make it non-crossed, it is better.
  • There are “Hon-musubi”(simple tying; official) and Sashi-musubi (complex tying; not official). In the exam, only Hon-musubi is accepted, because “Sashi-musubi” takes longer time to tie and it can be considered as “intentionally loses time”.
   IJF SOR P134
  Sport and Organization Rules of the International Judo Federation ARTICLE 3 –
  Judo Uniform (Judogi) Refer to IJF SOR Appendix C. For a better efficiency and to
  have a good grip it is necessary for the jacket to be well fitted in the belt, with the
  belt tied tightly. To reinforce that, the competitor shall arrange their Judogi and belt
  quickly between Mate and Hajime announced by the referee. If an athlete
  intentionally loses time arranging his judogi and belt, he will receive Shido.
  • Both ends have to be same lengths from the nod
  • In the competition regulation, the end length from the nod is from 20-30cm, but it is accepted to have shorter or longer belt considering the situation.
  • In the 6th kyu exam, you have to tie within 20 seconds. Generally you have to tie within 15 seconds.
  • Jacket of Judogi (and other Japanese traditional jackets) have to be worn left-over-right (left side comes outer than right side). Right-over-left is for burial clothes in Japan. Left-over-right is easy to remember by the position easy to put right hand the inside
  • In a practice or competition, it is needed to fix the gi properly.
  • Tie Shitabaki (pants) tight make sure it does not come down. The strings should be put inside the Shitabaki and should not be appeared from outside when you wear the Uwagi (jacket).
  • Tucking up sleeves or pants are considered as against manner
  • Judogi have to be always clean (clean up after every class)
  • You should not walk shoes area with barefoot, in order to keep Tatami (mats) clean

1-2. Reihou (Manners)

  • Stand straight, join heels, open toes 45-60 degrees.
  • Make fingers straight and put the side of the body
  1. Put left knee down, then right knee down. When both knees went down, bottoms are up and toes are standing. Then sit down with only big toes crossed with right big toe up. Hands are on the top of thighs.
  2. Make the body straight, put the chin down and don’t make arms straight and stiff.
  3. When standing up, make bottoms up and stand toes. Then raise right knee up, after that raise left knee up and stand up.

– Toes position before and after Seiza and knee top position at Seiza should be same.

– Sitting down from left then right, standing up from right then left (no mistake is accepted).

  • Slide hands from the top of thighs to mats in front of knees, and bow until your head has 7.9-11.8 inch (20-30cm) distance (3 lengthwise fists size). Put the hands like opposite V shape, and distance between index fingers is about 2.4 inch (6cm; length of index finger). When bowing, try to bend your hips and not to bend back.
  • Try not to raise your bottoms when bow (as low as possible)
  • Spend 4 seconds from start to the end of the bow. Too fast or too slow is not good.
  • Make eye contact to your opponent and bow with same timing
  • Without bending your back, bow your hips for 30 degrees
  • Slide hands with bowing from the side to the front just above the knees, and slide back the hands to the side
  • Spend 4 seconds from start to the end of the bow. Too fast or too slow is not good.
  • Make eye contact to your opponent and bow with same timing
  • Sit with opening knees and feet inside. You can bend the back naturally (do not bend too much)
  • Put hands on knees and do not put hands to the back
  • You can sit with Anza when permitted during practice or competition
  • When there is no instruction, Seiza is proper sit.
  • Do Ritsu-rei (standing bow) before enter the Tatami (mats)
  • In the competition area, do Ki-o-tsuke, make eye contact and Ritsurei
  • Step from left leg then right leg, and make “Shizen-hontai (see 5-1.)” before “Hajime”
  • At “Mate”, wait the position of “Hajime” with “Shizen-hontai”
  • At “Soremade”, wait the position of “Hajime” with “Shizen-hontai”, after sentence of the match by referee step back from right leg then left leg and make Ki-o-tsuke position. Then make eye contact with the opponent and Ritsu-rei
  • Strictly abstain victory poses (regarded disrespectful) or any disrespectful behavior

1-3. UKEMI (Breakfalls)

(1) Start position: Sit with extended legs (join knees together), raise arms in front of shoulder with elbow and fingers straight

(2) Roll back and slap tatami (mats) when the back lands on tatami. Do not bend elbows when slapping tatami. Angle of arms from body is 45 degrees. Raise head and look the nod of the belt when slap tatami in order to make sure that the head never touches on tatami. Legs can be raised by rolling back, but do not bend knees and do not raise legs more than 90 degrees from tatami (to prevent hitting head by momentum of legs).

(3) After making a ukemi, go back to the start position

Point

– The most important point in Ukemi (breakfalls) is to protect head. It is meaningless if you cannot protect your head with Ukemi. You also disperse the shock by utilizing wide area and slapping tatami and protect joints by ukemi.

(1)Start position: Sit with extended legs (join knees together), raise right arm to shoulder height with the elobow and the fingers straight to your right. Put left hand on the nod of the belt.

(2) Move right arm and both legs to left and lay down with right side of the back and slap tatami with right arm. Do not bend elbow when slapping tatami. Angle of arms from body is 45 degrees. Raise head and look the nod of the belt when slap tatami in order to make sure that the head never touches on tatami. Legs can be raised by rolling back, but do not bend knees and do not raise legs more than 90 degrees from tatami (to prevent hitting head by momentum of legs).

(3) After a ukemi, make start position of next side (raise left hand).

Point

  • When lay down, you have to lay with one side of the back because it is Yoko(side)-ukemi
  • As 1 is right, 2 is left, odd numbers are for right slaps and even numbers are for left slaps

(1) Start position: stand on knees (stand toes), make opposite V shape with hands.

(2) Go forward down and make ukemi using arms from elbow to  palms.

(3) After a ukemi, quickly go back to start position

Points

– Main purpose is to protect face and belly, so don’t put them on tatami

– Do not only put palms (big risk to injury of shoulder, elbow or wrist)

(1) Start position: Lay down on the back and raise head, hands and legs

(2) Twist body to right and slap tatami with right hand, the side of right leg and the soul of left leg. Left shoulder is up from tatami. Angle of right arm from body is 45 degrees.

Keep head up and look at the nod of the belt. Bend left knee and use the whole area of the soul, but do not stand the knee too much, and lean it to right a bit. This is to protect both of people who throws(Tori) and who makes ukemi(Uke) when the Tori fall on the Uke. Bend the right leg naturally when slapping tatami. Mind the position of right knee not hitting left knee in case right knee go down accidentally (injury prevention). Put both legs where the line between left toes and right toes is vertical to the body. Put left hand on the nod of the belt.

(3) Back to the start position and then twist to the left and make ukemi.

Points

  • As 1 is right, 2 is left, odd numbers are for right slaps and even numbers are for left slaps
  • This is practice for basic posture when being thrown, so should be practiced very well to prevent injury prevention and decrease the fear of being thrown.

(1) Start position: Stand straight (join feet, or ki-o-tsuke), raise arms in front of shoulder with elbow and fingers straight

(2) Bend knees and land on tatami from the bottom and roll to the back, and strongly slap the tatami with with arms. Do not bend elbows when slapping tatami. Angle of arms from body is 45 degrees. Raise head and look the nod of the belt when slap tatami in order to make sure that the head never touches on tatami. Legs can be raised by rolling back, but do not bend knees and do not raise legs more than 90 degrees from tatami (to prevent hitting head by momentum of legs).

(3) After making a ukemi, go back to the start position (use the momentum of ukemi)

Point

– The most important point in Ukemi (breakfalls) is to protect head. It is meaningless if you cannot protect your head with Ukemi. You also disperse the shock by utilizing wide area and slapping tatami and protect joints by ukemi.

(1) Start position: Stand like “Shizen-hontai”, and raise right arm to right side as high as shoulder with the elbow and the fingers straight. Put left hand on the nod of the belt.

(2) Move right arm and right leg to left without bending the elbow and knee, and go down and land on tatami from right side of the bottom and roll to right side. When right side of the body lands on tatami, slap tatami strongly. Left hand is on the nod of the belt until slap tatami with right hand. Do not bend elbow when slapping tatami. Angle of arms from body is 45 degrees. Raise head and look the nod of the belt when slap tatami in order to make sure that the head never touches on tatami. Legs can be raised by rolling back, but do not bend knees and do not raise legs more than 90 degrees from tatami (to prevent hitting head by momentum of legs).

(3) After a ukemi, make start position of next side (raise left hand).

Point

  • When lay down, you have to lay with one side of the back because it is Yoko(side)-ukemi
  • As 1 is right, 2 is left, odd numbers are for right slaps and even numbers are for left slaps

(1) Start position: Put left knee down and stand right knee up. Put left hand down to in front of left leg and the left side to right toes, right hand to right side of left hand at the center of body (put right pinky finger forward).

(2) Roll forward on tatami from right pinky finger to right elbow, right shoulder and right back, then make ukemi with left arm, outside of left leg and the soul of right foot. The posture when making ukemi is same as left side of Ukemi-ashi (3-4). Head never touches on tatami from start to end of the ukemi.

(3) Make start position of next side. And do next side roll.

Points

  • Do not bend elbow of the arm (right arm in (2)) during roll
  • Do not move hand (right hand in (2)) when you make roll (often seen moving hand when rolling).
  • Roll straight without head touching tatami. Roll to side is not good Mae-mawari-ukemi.
  1. Start position: Stand as Shizen-hontai, and put arms in front of the face with opposite V shape.
  2. Fall down to forward and make ukemi using the area from the elbows to palms. Knees, belly and face must not touch tatami.
  3. After a ukemi, quickly go back to start position

Points

– Main purpose is to protect face and belly, so don’t put them on tatami

– Do not only put palms (big risk to injury of shoulder, elbow or wrist)

(1) Start position: Make Migi-shizentai position. And put hands down same as 3-8(1).

(2) Make a roll and ukemi. Same as 3-8(2)

(3) Make start position of next side. And do next side roll.

Points

  • Do not bend elbow of the arm (right arm in (2)) during roll
  • Do not move hand (right hand in (2)) when you make roll (often seen moving hand when rolling).
  • Roll straight without head touching tatami. Roll to side is not good Mae-mawari-ukemi.

(1) Walk forward from right leg as 1, then left leg as 2 and then when right leg comes forward again, put right hand as start position of 3-8 and roll as 3-8

(2) Slap tatami with left hand as 3-8, and stand up using the momentum. When standing up, legs should be same as “Shizen-hontai”. Put right hand on the top of right thigh or the nod of the belt.

(3) Do the next side

Point

  • Roll straight without head touching tatami. Roll to side is not good Mae-mawari-ukemi.

1-4. Mat Exercise

(1) Make squat position, put both hands on tatami, roll straight forward and come back to squat position.

Points

  • It may be easy to roll by trying to land tatami with back of the head
  • During the roll, join knees together and make knees straight
  • Use the momentum of roll and come back to squat position

(1) Make squat position, put hands next to ear and roll to back. Use the momentum and roll back and push tatami when hands touch tatami and come back to squat position.

(1) Roll forward like 4-1, open legs when legs land on tatami and make bottoms up by pushing tatami with hands.

(2) When rolling continuously, do not close legs after roll and start next from leg opened

Points

  • During the roll, join knees together and make knees straight
  • Open legs as wide as possible
  • Use the momentum and push tatami strongly with hands to stand the bottom
  • The aim of this roll is to improve flexibility and get timing of the move

(1) Roll back like backward roll, and put bottom up with opened legs

(2) When rolling continuously, do not close legs after roll and start next from leg opened

Points

  • During the roll, join knees together and make knees straight
  • Open legs as wide as possible

2. TACHIWAZA (Standing Techniques) [33 items]

2-1. KAMAE (Stance)

  • Open legs as shoulder width, make the back straight and put arms to the side
  • Do not stand one leg forward
  • Do not deeply bend knees and be flexible to move.
  • This position is naturally easy position to transit the center of gravity, move to offend or defend
  • Step right leg 1 foot forward from Shizen-hontai
  • Basic stance for Migi-gumi (Right grip)
  • Step left leg 1 foot forward from Shizen-hontai
  • Basic stance for Hidaris-gumi (Left grip)

2-2. TAI-SABAKI (Body Movement)

  • After a tai-sabaki, go back to Shizen-hontai (open legs as shoulder width and not one leg forward)
  • Each tai-sabaki is added one leg name based on the leg that moves first

This tai-sabaki is to move to diagonally forward and rotate body 90 degrees

Migi-ashi-mae-sabaki

– From shizen-hontai, put right leg on right diagonally forward with the toes 90 degrees turned to left, then move left leg same way and be shizen-hontai

Hidari-ashi-mae-sabaki

– From shizen-hontai, put left leg on left diagonally forward with the toes 90 degrees turned to right, then move right leg same way and be shizen-hontai

This tai-sabaki is to turn your body 180 degrees to forward, and it is used in many techniques like Seoi-nages and Tsurikomi-goshi.

Migi-ashi-mae-mawari-sabaki

– From shizen-hontai, move right leg in front of left leg, then move left leg in front of where right leg in the beginning (shizen-hontai) through the back side of right leg and turn your body 180 degrees. After the mae-mawari-sabaki, you will be shizen-hontai

Hidari-ashi-mae-mawari-sabaki

– From shizen-hontai, move left leg in front of right leg, then move right leg in front of where left leg in the beginning (shizen-hontai) through the back side of left leg and turn your body 180 degrees. After the mae-mawari-sabaki, you will be shizen-hontai

This tai-sabaki is to move to diagonally back and rotate body 90 degrees

Migi-ashi-ushiro-sabaki

– From shizen-hontai, morve right leg on left diagonally back with the toes 90 degrees turned to right, then move left leg same way and be shizen-hontai

Hidari-ashi-ushiro-sabaki

– From shizen-hontai, move left leg on right diagonally back with the toes 90 degrees turned to left, then move right leg same way and be shizen-hontai

 This tai-sabaki is to turn your body 180 degrees to back, and it is used in many techniques when pulling the opponent. Turning of the body takes only 1 step, so it can be faster than Ushiro-mawari-sabaki(6-4), but kuzushi will be more difficult.

 Migiashi-furiko-sabaki (mainly used for migi-gumi(right grip) techniques)

– From Shizen-hontai, move right leg on the back of left leg, then swing left leg anticlockwise, turn your body 180 degrees and make shizen-hontai

 Hidariashi-furiko-sabaki (mainly used for hidari-gumi(left grip) techniques)

– From Shizen-hontai, move left leg on the back of right leg, then swing right leg clockwise, turn your body 180 degrees and make shizen-hontai

2-3. KUMIKATA (Grip&Stance)

Stand with Migi-shizentai. Left hand (hikite) grabs uke’s right sleeve (side or underneath around the elbow). Right hand (Tsurite) grabs uke’s left lapel where right sum touches uke’s collarbone. Both hands grab uke’s judogi mainly with pinky, index finger and middle finger. 

 Stand with Hidari-shizentai. Right hand (hikite) grabs uke’s left sleeve (side or underneath around the elbow). Left hand (Tsurite) grabs uke’s right lapel where left sum touches uke’s collarbone. Both hands grab uke’s judogi mainly with pinky, index finger and middle finger. 

Common things in Kuzushi(breaking balance) and Nage-waza (throwing techniques) explanation

– Both of uke and tori grip properly before start. This is required not only kyu exams, but also practices.

– Explanation from 8-1 to 13-2 (Kuzushi, Nage-waza etc.) is in case of Migi-gumi (right grip). In case of Hidari-gumi, left and right will be opposite. And when direction of throw is not described, the direction is to hikite’s direction.

– Direction of Kuzushi is explained from uke’s view if it’s not described.

 eg.) Kuzushi (break the balance) to forward -> Break uke’s balance forward “from uke’s view”, so uke will lean forward

– Nage-wazas with mawari-sabaki (body rotation), if you step too close to the opponent, you will not have space to break the balance and you will not have space to turn. So the position of steps should be properly. Basically you should do kuzushi to the middle of the distance between you and the opponent, and step into the middle.  

– Besides Sutemi-waza (Sacrifice techniques), after throwing, Tori keeps standing and hold hikite (in some techniques tsurite) to protect uke’s head. This is important to secure the safety of both of tori and uke.

2-4. KUZUSHI (Breaking Balance)

Kuzushi (breaking balance) to 8 directions(front, back, sides, angular).

  • Start from Higi-gumi or Hidari-gumi.
  • Leg movement (right grip): When kuzushi is for front, right front or right of the opponent, step left leg first then step right leg and make migi-shizentai. When kuzushi is for left front, left, left back or back, step right leg first then step left leg and make migi-shizentai. When kuzushi is for right back, step left leg then step right leg and make hidari-shizentai, or step right leg first then left leg and make migi-shizentai.

– Hikite movement (right grip): When kuzushi is for right front or right side of the opponent, turn the wrist of your hikite(left hand in migi-gumi) and raise it to uke’s shoulder height, when kuzushi is for left, left back or left front, use the hikite to lift uke’s elbow. When kuzushi is for back or right back, twist hikite’s wrist inside and put your hikite on uke’s body and push it back.

– Tsurite movement(right grip): When kuzushi is for right front or right of the opponent, use tsurite (right hand in right grip) as the hand and the wrist be on the elbow. When kuzushi is for left front, left of left back, use the wrist mainly. When kuzushi is for back or right back, give pressure with tsurite naturally.

Use hands like handling a wheel to break the opponent’s balance

  • When you move counterclockwise, move your legs as migi-ashi-mae-sabaki (right leg front move), and hands are used like you move a wheel to left. The other side should be done the opposite.
  • Tori should move the body from the front of the opponent to front side and create space to break the balance.

 Use hikite (left hand in right grip) to break the opponent’s balance

  • When you move counterclockwise, move your legs as migi-ashi-mae-sabaki (right leg front move), and turn the wrist of hikite as you can see the back of hand and move hikite to break opponent’s balance to his front.
  • When you move clockwise, move your legs as hidari-ashi-mae-sabaki (left leg front move), and use hikite as it push the opponent’s elbow to in front of his body.
  • Tori should move the body from the front of the opponent to front side and create space to break the balance.

Use tsurite (right hand in right grip) to break the opponent’s balance

  • When you move counterclockwise, move your legs as migi-ashi-mae-sabaki (right leg front move), and turn the wrist of tsurite inside and swing the elbow inside to break opponent’s balance to his front.
  • When you move clockwise, move your legs as hidari-ashi-mae-sabaki (left leg front move), and raise the elbow of tsurite to shoulder height and pull the opponent to break the opponent’s balance.
  • Tori should move the body from the front of the opponent to front side and create space to break the balance.

2-5. Basic Uchikomi

 Hikitsuke is a basic uchikomi for many nage-waza such as Harai-goshi, Uchi-mata, Tsurikomi-goshi. The following is the points.

1. Both grip in Migi-gumi and stand shizen-hontai with distance (as far as possible).

2. Step right leg on the center line of uke’s body where uke’s big toes and tori’s right big toe make a equilateral triangle. Then move left leg to the right front of your(tori’s) right leg through back of right leg.

Points

  • Turn the wrist of hikite(left hand in right grip) as you can see the can see the back of the hand, and raise it to higher than your eye height, and pull hikite to break uke’s balance to his right front. Do not move hikite to close to you, to prevent that uke’s weight come to you. When you step both legs, the back side of your hikite hand should be in front of your eyes, and keep the tension of uke’s judogi from uke’s elbow to his back (otherwise uke’s balance go back).
  • Tsurite (right hand in right grip) should be used to mainly lift opponent’s center of gravity. The elbow goes to opponent’s left arm-pit, and the wrist comes higher than opponent’s shoulder. The position of Tsurite should be higher than hikite to make your body rotation smoother. The angle of elbow should be lower than 90 degrees to use the hand efficiently.
  • Another way of using tsurite is to pull the opponent as same direction of hikite, in order to support hikite’s kuzushi. When only hikite is not enough to break opponent’s balance to right front, this way is more recommended.
  • You start kuzushi with both hands when you begin to step right leg. Stepping right leg should support hikite’s kuzushi, so bend right knee and step strong.
  • You go low when you step right leg, and keep the height when you step left. When you step both legs, both knees have to be bended and your weight is equally on both legs.
  • Do not step too close to opponent, otherwise you don’t have space to rotate your body.
  • When you step both legs, uke should be already off-balanced to right front.
  • Tori goes lower, and uke goes up his balance by tori’s kuzushi

 Hiki-dashi is a practice of hikitsuke by pulling opponent, in order to strengthen kuzushi and coordination of lower body & upper body, and hikite & tsurite.


1.  Make migi-gumi grips, and uke stands wider stance of shizen-hontai, bend knees and open the chest, and tori stands wider stance than migi-shizentai.
2. Tori bend both of his knees and move uke as hiki-tsuke’s hands movement. Tori’s right side of the body impacts uke’s center’s of the body. Uke stretch his knees as tori makes the kuzushi. Uke needs to take hiki-dashi by opening the chest and not to lean forward.
3. At the same time as tori move both hands back to migi-gumi position, tori steps back from left leg then right leg to prepare the next kuzushi. Uke moves forward from left leg at the same time as tori steps back, and make the posture as step 1.
4. Repeat step 1 to 3.

Points

  • Usage of the hands are same as “Hiki-tsuke”
    Both of tori and uke need to use their knees flexibly.
  • Tori needs to make his belt level lower than uke’s belt level when tori does hiki-dashi.
  • After a kuzushi, properly go back to start position.
  • Keep facing side, or keep raising hands are not good to strengthen the kuzushi.

2-6. ASHI-WAZA (Leg throw)

1. Pushing Uke

 Tori step forward from his left leg, then step right leg and sweep his right ankle with tori’s left leg.

2. Pulling Uke

 Tori step back from his left leg, then step right leg back, and sweep uke’s right leg with tori’s left leg when uke’s right leg is about to land on mat.

Points

  • Step together with uke, and sweep at the right timing, when uke’s center of gravity transit from right leg to left leg (when pushing) or left leg to right leg (when pulling)
  • Do not bend the body, and sweep using the belly (move the belly a little forward)
  • Turn the ankle of sweeping leg, and sweep uke’s side of ankle with the arch of sole
  • Both hand are used like moving a wheel to break uke’s balance.

1. By side steps

 Tori moves right from right leg then left leg (this is 1 step), and at 3rd step, sweep uke’s outside of right ankle with tori’s arch of left sole.

Points

 – The timing is very important. Tori needs to sweep at when uke’s right sole is landing on tatami.

  • Do not bend body, and imagine to use the belly to sweep.
  • The sole of sweeping leg should face to side, and catch uke’s outside of ankle with the arch.
  • You can have stronger sweep by making the distance closer before the sweep
  • Use the hands like wheeling to left.

1. Against standing Uke

 Against Uke standing shizen-hontai(natural open stance), step right leg, then left leg with crossing steps, and sweep uke’s left leg with tori’s right leg (big toe of right leg should move like drawing a circle on mat). Uke should be fallen down his left back.

2. Using Sode-sabaki-kuzushi (sleeve sabaki kuzushi)

 Use sode-sabaki-kuzushi, and sweep uke’s left leg at the timing when uke’s left leg lands on mat, and throw him on his left back.

Points

  • This technique throw uke to his back or left back.
  • Put right leg on a line of uke’s center, and step left leg on right side of right leg. The position of legs are depending on tori’s body and uke’s body. If they are too close you cannot turn your hip, and if they are too far you cannot sweep well, so tori should adjust the positions. Bend knees when step, and do not lean to uke and stand stable.
  • When you step both legs, your right ear should be next to uke’s right ear (put heads close), tori’s chest and uke’s chest should contact.
  • Turn the wrist of hikite(left hand in right grip) and pull to left down to prevent rotation of uke’s shoulders (do not pull too strong; keep his balance to center or left).
  • Move tsurite(right hand in right grip) to next to uke’s left ear and open the elbow to be close to uke. This move can stop rotation of uke’s shoulders as hikite.
  • By both hands, make uke’s body like a plate.
  • When sweeping, the back of knee of the sweeping leg should contact uke’s back of the knee. You rotate your hip too when you sweep.
  1. Against standing Uke

  Against Uke standing shizen-hontai(natural open stance), step right leg, then step left leg where inside of left sole comes to right heel, and sweep uke’s right heel with tori’s arch of right sole. Uke should be fallen down on where he stands.

2. Pulling Uke

 Step back from left leg and pull the uke together, step right leg back, step left leg back and sweep uke’s right heel with tori’s arch of right sole, right before uke’s right leg lands on mat.

Points

  • This technique throw uke to his right back, or where he stands.
  • The positions of legs are depending on tori’s body and uke’s body, it will be harder to break the balance if they are too close, and it will be harder to sweep if they are too far. Both knees should be bended when you step both legs, and do not lean to uke, keep your back straight.
  • Turn the wrist of hikite inside when you step right leg, and press down his elbow to his right toes by pressing hikite’s base of thumb.
  • Move tsurite(right hand in right grip) to the center of uke’s body, face up the palm up, and break his balance to his right.
  • Different from O-uchi-gari, your chest does not contact uke’s chest and you have your tsurite between tori and uke.
  • When sweeping, sweep his heel to his toes direction with the arch of your right sole
  • When sweeping, press down hikite, and move tsurite to your left up.

1. Against standing Uke

 Step right leg as migi-ashi-mae-sabaki (right leg front move), and put the arch of left sole to the right above of opponent’s right knee and throw the opponent. Hands should be used as sode-sabaki-kuzushi (sleeve sabaki kuzushi).

2. Against forward-moving Uke

 Step back with ayumi-ashi (walking steps), and put right leg outside of the opponent with the toes facing inside, and put the arch of left sole to the right above of opponent’s right knee and throw the opponent. Hands should be used as sode-sabaki-kuzushi.

Points

  • Basic way is using left leg to throw (using right leg is advanced variation) 
  • Use hands as sode-sabaki-kuzushi(sleeve sabaki kuzushi)
  • Left leg should touch the right above of the opponent’s knee
  • Comparing Sasae-tsurikomi-ashi, Uke is twisted to side, and distance from Uke to Tori is further than Sasae-tsurikomi-ashi

1. Pulling uke forward

 From migi-gumi, step back from left leg, and when step back right leg, put the right leg outside of the moving direction with toes facing inside, and catch uke’s right shin with tori’s arch of left leg when uke’s right leg is about to land on tatami.

2. From Sode-sabaki-kuzushi

 Move counter-clock wise with sode-sabaki-kuzushi, and catch uke’s right shin with tori’s arch of left leg when uke’s right leg is about to land on tatami.

3. From Kaji-sabaki-kuzushi (Ushing another leg)

 Move clock wise with kaji-sabaki-kuzushi, and catch uke’s left shin with tori’s arch of right leg when uke’s left leg is about to land on tatami.

Points

  •  Basic is using left leg in migi-gumi (using right leg in migi-gumi is an advanced way)
  •  Tori needs to keep standing after the throw, and hold hikite (tsurite when using another leg)
  •  Comparing Hiza-guruma, Uke is thrown more vertically. And the distance from uke is closer in Sasae-tsurikomi-ashi.

1. Against standing uke

 From migi-gumi, stand a little left side, and then step left leg to the outside of uke’s right leg, swing up right leg and impact tori’s right chest and uke’s right chest, then swing right leg to the back and bend the body to throw uke to his back.

2. By pushing uke

 Step from left leg with ayumi-ashi(walking steps), right leg, then when stepping left leg, step the left leg bigger to uke’s outside of right leg, then swing right leg and impact tori’s right chest and uke’s right chest, then swing right leg to the back and bend the body to throw uke to his back.

Points

 – Basically step straight and sweep straight. Use the back of the knee of sweeping leg to catch uke’s back of the knee.

 – Use hikite to break uke’s balance to the sweeping side of the leg. Pull hikite to the side or diagonal down with turning the wrist as tori can see the back of hand. You should find your best pulling direction. Keep the tension of hikite until the throw to prevent uke to move back to another side.

 – Tsurite should be used to break uke’s balance to the sweeping side, and also be put sides to create space in front of right chest to impact uke’s right chest.

 – When stepping and raising sweeping leg, right side of the body should impact uke’s body.

 – Start kuzushi when stepping left leg.

1. Against standing uke

 Stepping legs and use hands as “hiki-tsuke”, and raise right leg to the back to sweep uke’s base of right thigh with tori’s back of right thigh to throw.

2. By pushing uke

 Tori steps forward from left leg, and step right leg on the center line of uke’s body, then step left leg to the right front of tori’s right leg and rotate body, at the same time raise right leg and sweep uke’s base of right thigh with tori’s back of right thigh to throw.

Points

 – Usage of hikite and tsurite are same as “hikitsuke”

 – When throwing, move hikite from in front of tori’s eyes to diagonal left down.

 – When throwing, move tsurite to in front of tori’s chest or the neck (find the best distance from the body).

 – To throw properly, rotate the body well when raising the leg.

 – Try to use back of the right thigh to sweep uke’s base of right thigh. And raise right leg as the big toe comes the highest position (twist the leg and raise)

 – At the moment of the throw, impact tori’s right scapula or right latissimus dorsi to uke’s chest. The timing of impact is rather later than “harai-goshi”.

 – Do not bend the head down. You will get “hansoku-make” if tori lands on tatami from the back head.

2-7. KOSHI-WAZA (Hip throw)

1. Against standing Uke

 Use migi-ashi-mae-mawari-sabaki (right leg forward rotation move) and break the opponent’s balance to his right front, and put right hand on his back and pull to yourself, then thrown him using knees stretching and twisting body.

2. Pulling Uke forward

 Stepping back with ayumi-ashi(walking steps) and pull the opponent forward, and use hidari-ashi-ushiro-mawari-sabaki (left leg backward rotation sabaki) or migi-ashi-furiko-sabaki (right leg swing rotation move), and break the balance of the opponent to his up front and throw.

Points

  • Turn the wrist of hikite (left hand in right grip) as you can see the back of hand and raise it to higher than eye sight at the same timing of stepping right leg. Do not move the hikite too close to yourself (to prevent that his weight comes on you). When you step both legs, your back of hand should be in front of your eyes, and keep the tension from uke’s right elbow to his back (otherwise uke’s balance go back). When throwing, pull hikite to left down 45 degrees. The usage of hikite is same as “Hikitsuke”.
  • Tsurite (right hand in right grip) is inserted under the opponent’s arm-pit and put the hand on his back.
  • You bend knees when stepping right leg, and do not change the height of your hip when stepping left leg. If you bend your knees when you step left leg, the opponent can pull you back.
  • Uke should be leaning forward or right forward when Tori step both legs, and tori’s toes should face forward, the legs should opened shoulder width and the knees should be bended.
  • Tori should be lower in position, and Uke’s center of gravity should be higher by tori’s kuzushi

1. Against standing Uke

 Make kuzushi and steps same as “hikitsuke”, then sweep uke’s right thigh with your back of right leg and throw him

2. Move Uke to side

 Move left from left leg then right leg, and turn your left toes to left and break uke’s balance to his right or right front, and make your chest contact his chest, and move your right hip and right leg on his moving path, and sweep his right thigh with the back of your right thigh.

Points

  • Kuzushi of hikite and tsurite is same as “hikituske”
  • When trowing, move the back of your hikite hand from in front of your eyes to left down 45 degrees, and move tsurite to front of your chest or neck (you need to find your best distance of your body to your tsurite)
  • Do kuzuhi as “hikitsuke”, and your right arm-pit contacts uke’s right chest during ritation, and rotate your body and uke’s body together. The timing of contacting your body to uke’s body is earlier in harai-goshi than Uchimata. 

1. Against standing uke
Step in with migi-ashi mae-mawari-sabaki(right leg forward rotation move) and do kuzushi as “hikitsuke”, then impact tori’s higher hip to uke’s higher belly and throw uke.

2. By pulling uke forward
Step back with ayumi-ashi(walking steps) and rotate body with hidari-ashi-ushiro-mawari-sabaki or migi-ashi-furiko-sabaki, then impact tori’s higher hip to uke’s higher belly and throw uke.

Points

  • Kuzushi is same as “hikitsuke”
  • When throwing, pull hikite left down from in front of your eyes.
  • When throwing, move tsurite to in front of tori’s neck or chest (find best distance between your tsurite and the body)
  • In this technique, it is easier to be tight around your chest, so it is important to adjust distance with uke, open chest and enter lower when stepping in.
  • When stepping both legs, legs should be wide as shoulders and toes face straight, and knees bended.

1. Against stading uke
Step in with migi-ashi-mae-mawari-sabaki, and do kuzushi as “hikitsuke”, move tsurite to uke’s back, and impact tori’s right hip to uke’s left belly then throw uke by twisting tori’s hips.

2. With moving side
Tori moves to his left with side steps, and do kuzushi to uke’s right as in happou-no-kuzushi, make tori’s left toes face left and step right leg on moving direction of uke’s left leg, and impact tori’s right hip to uke’s left belly then throw uke by twisting tori’s hips.

Points

  • Difference from O-goshi is that in Uki-goshi only one side of hip impacts uke, and throw uke by twisting hip.
  • Kuzushi is same as “hikitsuke”

1. Against standing uke

  Step right leg at the center of uke’s legs as uke’s toes and tori’s right toes make a triangle, then step left leg through in front of tori’s right leg, and put  in front of uke’s left leg, and move hikite to uke’s left front, and impact tori’s hips to uke’s belly and throw uke.

2. By pulling uke forward

 Step back with ayumi-ashi(walking step), and rotate body with migi-ashi-ushiro-mawari-sabaki or hidari-ashi-furiko-sabaki and put  in front of uke’s left leg, and move hikite to uke’s left front, and impact tori’s hips to uke’s belly and throw uke.

Points

  •  This technique throws uke to tori’s tsurite’s direction
  • Hikite can be used as bending elbow like “morote-seoi-nage” and put it under tsurite, or push up uke’s arm up and put hikite over tsurite. Both ways are ok (find your best way).
  • This technique is hip technique, so use hips to throw. Tori’s left hip should come more  left to uke’s left hip.
  • When stepping both legs, uke’s balance should be broken to his left front
  • After throwing, tori’s tsurite hold uke’s judogi to support his ukemi
  • In kyu exam, you perform from right leg as mentioned above, but in practice you practice hidari-ashi-mae-mawari-sabaki first.

2-8. TE-WAZA (Hand throw)

1. Against standing Uke

 Use migi-ashi-mae-mawari-sabaki (right leg forward rotation move), and use hikite(left hand in right grip) to right front, and insert tsurite under opponent’s right arm-pit and hold the arm-pit with inside of your right elbow. Your scapulas should contact opponent’s chest, and throw him to right forward.

2. Pulling Uke forward 

 Stepping back with ayumi-ashi(walking steps) and pull the opponent forward, and use hidari-ashi-ushiro-mawari-sabaki (left leg backward rotation sabaki) or migi-ashi-furiko-sabaki (right leg swing rotation move), and break the balance of the opponent to his up front and throw.

Points

  • Turn the wrist of hikite (left hand in right grip) as you can see the back of hand and raise it to higher than eye sight at the same timing of stepping right leg. Do not move the hikite too close to yourself (to prevent that his weight comes on you). By using hikite, you open his arm-pit.
  • When you step both legs, hikite should be in front of your chest or pulling down, and use tsurite to hold his arm-pit. When throwing, pull hikite to left down 45 degrees.
  • Tsurite holds uke’s right arm-pit with inside of your right elbow, and open your chest widely and keep your right elbow to your right side. Do not grab uke’s sleeve with your right hand in practice and exams, in order not to loose the holding of uke’s arm-pit. When throwing, twist tsurite’s elbow inside with hikite’s action.
  • Do not bend or lean your body and neck during rotation
  • Your center of the body and uke’s center should be on same line (you should turn on his center).
  • Uke should be leaning forward or right forward when Tori step both legs, and tori’s toes should face forward, the legs should opened shoulder width and the knees should be bended.
  • Tori should be lower in position, and Uke’s center of gravity should be higher by tori’s kuzushi

1. Against standing Uke

 Use mig-ashi-mae-mawari-sabaki (right leg front rotation move), and use hikite to break uke’s balance to right front, bend the elbow of tsurite and move tsurite as the hand comes on the shoulder, make the back of your blade bones contact uke’s chest, and throw him to his right front.

2. Pulling Uke forward

 Use hidari-ashi-ushiro-mawari-sabaki or migi-ashi-furiko-sabaki and rotate the body, bend the elbow of tsurite and move tsurite as the hand comes on the shoulder, make the back of your blade bones contact uke’s chest, and throw him to his right front.

Points

  • Turn the wrist of hikite (left hand in right grip) as you can see the back of hand and raise it to higher than eye sight at the same timing of stepping right leg. Do not move the hikite too close to yourself (to prevent that his weight comes on you). When you step both legs, pull down hikite or put it in front of the chest, and keep the tension from uke’s right elbow to his back (otherwise uke’s balance go back). When throwing, pull hikite to left down 45 degrees. Open uke’s right arm-pit and make space there.
  • Put your tsurite to your side when you rotate. There are some ways to turn the wrist (turning the wrist inside until uke’s lapel covers the wrist, turning the wrist inside about 90 degrees, not turning the wrist and hook fingers to the lapel, etc), and you need to find the best way for you. 
  • From stepping to rotation of the body, do not lean your body, keep your back straight and keep your neck straight.
  • When you rotate, your center line and uke’s center line should be matched. 
  • When you rotate, distance of both legs should be same as shoulder width, toes should point straight forward, and both knees should be bended
  • Tori makes his center of gravity lower by rotation, and uke’s center of gravity should go higher by tori’s kuzushi

1. Against standing uke
Do kuzushi as “hikitsuke”, and step right leg on the center line of uke’s legs, then move left leg in front of uke’s left leg through back of tori’s right leg, move right leg to tori’s right back and bend the knee, catch uke’s shin by tori’s right calf and throw uke.

2. By stepping to side
Move to left with side steps, and face left toes to left and do kuzushi to uke’s right as happou-no-kuzushi, then put bended right leg on uke’s moving direction and throw uke

Points

  • Usage of hikite and tsurite is basically same as “hikituske”, but tori’s chest and uke’s chest do not impact (this is a hand-throw). To prevent leaning your body by uke’s resistance, you can try to “push” uke to his right front
  • The position of right leg to throw is 1 feet back of tori’s left leg, and the toes face straight of inside from uke’s view. You should find the best toes angle by practice.
  • Sudden change of tori’s center of the gravity height is important, use knees flexible and make your center of gravity low. But do not lean the body, and put your balance to your both legs equally.

2-9. SUTEMI-WAZA (Sacrifice throw)

1. By stepping backward

 Step back with ayumi-ashi(walking steps), step left leg on the center line of moving direction, and suddenly bend left knee down and lay your body on back and put right sole to uke’s left base of the thigh and throw.

Points

  • Make kuzushi to straight front (basic is straight front)
  •  Use both hands to break uke’s balance to his forward up
  • When throwing, uke’s head should pass left side of tori’s head from tori’s view.
  • In tomoe-nage, there are many variations in competition (grabbing both sleeves, using left leg in migi-gumi and throw to side etc)
  • Since sutemi-waza(sacrifice-throws) is very difficult to secure uke’s safety, do not use them to beginners

3. NEWAZA (Ground Techniques)[32 items]

3-1. Newaza Exercise

 Waki-jime is a good exercise to improve abs and teres major muscle which are important in ground techniques (eg. Kami-shihou-gatame).

  1. Do mae-ukemi and lay down on your belly
  2. Make arms straight forward and put palms on mats
  3. Press the mats with fore arms and move forward by pressing elbows to sides. Turn fore arms, make thumbs face outsides and close the arm-pits, and open chest and dace forward.

Points

  • Properly extend arms before pressing to sides
  • Open chest when closing arm-pits

 Ebi is a good exercise to practice moves for escaping from Yoko-shihou-gatame or inserting leg to keep the distance from opponent.

  1. Lay down on the back, raise head up from mat, and extend arms above the head
  2. Bend right knee, press mat with right sole, twist the body to left and bend body. With this movement, swing down arms and move the elbows in front of the belly, and also move left knee to belly. You move to head direction with this action.
  3. Back to position at 1, and then do the opposite side and move to head direction.

 Gyaku-ebi is a good exercise to practice moves for escaping from Kami-shihou-gatame or keeping distance from opponent.

  1. Like after “14-2. Ebi”, lay on left side, bend body, and both elbows put in front of belly.
  2. Press mat with out side of left leg and arch back body, and swing up arms to head and move to leg direction. Swing up right leg up to make momentum.
  3. Lay on right side and do the opposite action and move to leg direction.

 Ashi-mawashi is a move for blocking the opponent’s pass guard from his Seitai-ue position. This exercise is good for abs as well.

  1. Lay on the back, raise head up, open both knees and raise legs, put both ankles closer than shoulder width. Keep ankle angles less than 90 degrees.
  2. Circle both legs (knees are the centers) to inside. Each ankle pass the center of body alternately. Keep ankle angles less than 90 degrees.
  3. Circulate both legs to outside.

Point

– Keep knees wide opened to prevent opponent’s pass guard from side

 This move is used to keep distance from opponent in Seitai shita position, or sweep opponent (like Katakeri-mekuri in 3-6.). This exercise is good for abs too.

  1. Lay on the back, raise head, raise legs and bend knees. Do not open knees in this exercise.
  2. Pull right ankle to right bottom and extend leg as the heel slides an inch above mat surface. Keep ankle angle less than 90 degrees, and imagine to kick the air with the sole. When push-kick with right leg, pull left ankle to left bottom.
  3. Do push-kick with left leg and pull right leg to right bottom.
  4. Do push-kick continuously like as reverse-cycling.

3-2. OSAEKOMI-WAZA (Pinning Techniques)

Common things in Osaekomi-waza

  • It is difficult to describe in forms of Osaekomi-waza, so in here just points are mentioned.
  • There are some variations in some Osaekomi-wazas, in here one of basic variations are introduced.
  • In actual situation, you need to move, adjust or transit techniques depending on situation.

 Hold an opponent wrist with an arm-pit, and hold the opponent’s neck with another arm; this technique holds an line of an opponent’s wrist to his another side of neck.

  • Use an arm-pit to hold an opponent’s wrist. Open chest and keep tension from his shoulder to the arm.
  • Another arm should hold the opponent’s lapel around the neck.
  • Open legs widely. A triangle of ankles and arm-pit holding opponent’s wrist should be big to keep the tori’s balance. 
  • Do not stand backside leg’s knee. If the knee stands, opponent can get the leg and escape.
  • Do not bend the head down too much, otherwise it gets easier for opponent to move his arm and pull it out.
  • Do not raise head up too much, otherwise opponent can sit up, or turn over.
  • Do not ride on the opponent too much, otherwise the opponent can turn over.

 Yoko-shihou-gatame holds opponent as Tori and Uke make T-shape.

  • Keep T-shape of Tori’s body and Uke’s body
  • Focus on pressing opponent chest by chest, and you do not have to grab outside of opponent’s pants when opponent is bigger.
  • Do not ride on the opponent too much, otherwise the opponent can turn over.

 Kami-shihou-gatame holds opponent from his head and make I-shape.

  • Turn the opponent face to side, and press the head with belly and control the opponent.
  • Grab opponent’s sides of obi, and opponent’s arms should be inside of tori’s arms.
  • Do not ride on the opponent too much, otherwise the opponent can turn over.
  • Do not put your center of gravity too far from the opponent, otherwise opponent can move easily.

Kata-gatame holds uke’s one arm and neck by tori’s arms and tori keeps his position by side of uke.

Points

  • Hold uke’s shoulder and neck tightly. By putting your ear close to uke’s ear, you can tighten the hold.
  • About leg positions, basic is putting one knee to the side of uke’s body, and put another leg on an extended line of uke’s shoulders. You can put legs like kesa-gatame as well.

 Holding uke by mounting on him.

Points

  • You can lock uke’s shoulder and neck like Kata-gatame, or hold uke’s arm with both arms or one arm. There can be several variations, and it is called Kami-shihou-gatame when you mount on uke.
  • You can hold his legs from outside of his legs, or you can keep the balance by putting your legs on tatami(mats)

See the video below.

See the video below.

See the video below.

 Osaekomi-sekai-isshu (Osaekomi around the world) is created by Sensei Samejima of Kodokan in 1997, in order to practice how to do osaekomi, the offense and defense and the transitions.

It is a continuous transition of osaekomi techniques;

“Kesa-gatame -> Ushiro-kesa-gatame -> Yoko-shihou-gatame(1) -> Yoko-shihou-gatame(2) -> Tate-shihou-gatame -> Kesa-gatame -> Kesa-gatame”.

At kyu exam, an examinee needs to have an uke, who understand and can perform this continuous offense&defense and the transitions.


The description below is when tori start kesa-gatame from uke’s right side.

1. Kesa-gatame to Ushiro-kesa-gatame
Tori holds uke in kesa-gatame. Uke does ebi (shrimp) and grab tori’s obi with left hand, then tries to do teppou-gaeshi (flip over tori to uke’s left). To block the teppou-gaeshi, tori release right hand from uke’s neck, and put right hand on tatami. Then uke use his left hand to move tori’s right hand to right side to move tori’s back. And tori locks uke’s right wrist with right arm-pit and switch to ushiro-kesa-gatame.

2. Ushiro-kesa-gatame to Yoko-shihou-gatame
Uke does ebi to face tori’s side, and push tori’s right arm by left hand to unlock right wrist. Then uke does ebi to another side to turn body to escape. Tori stops uke’s right arm by left arm and stop uke’s rotation, and transit to yoko-shihou-gatame. This time, tori’s right hand grabs uke’s pants.

3. Yoko-shihou-gatmae 1 to yoko-shihou-gatame 2
Uke does ebi to tori’s side, pushes tori’s left shoulder and create space between bodies, then move right arm to left and tries to rotate left to escape. Tori stops the rotation by stopping uke’s right arm with tori’s right arm. At this move, tori moves right knee to the back of uke’s left shoulder(scapula), to prevent uke’s right rotation. Then tori moves around to uke’s head, and switch arm and stop uke’s arm with left arm, and moves around further to in front of uke’s chest, then uses the upper body and make yoko-shihou-gatame. This time, tori’s left hand is on tatami around uke’s right arm-pit.

4. Yoko-shihou-gatame to tate-shihou-gatame
Uke does ebi to left, grabs tori’s back obi with right hand through tori’s right shoulder, and tries to do teppou-gaeshi (flip tori to right). Then tori strains uke’s right arm with neck (uke cannot keep holding obi), and transits to tate-shihou-gaeshi. When tori steps across uke’s legs, tori pushes uke’s right leg with left hand to block uke’s catching legs.


5. Tate-shihou-gatame to kata-gatame
Uke pushes tori’s right leg with left hand and catch tori’s right leg with legs. Tori keeps straining uke’s right shoulder, twists hips to left and move right knee to left, then use left leg to push uke’s legs and unlock uke’s legs, and transits to kata-gatame.

6. Kata-gatame to Kesa-gatame
Uke pushes strained right hand with left hand to create space at right shoulder. Using this force, tori locks uke’s right wrist with tori’s left arm-pit, and transits to kesa-gatame.

3-3. SHIME-WAZA (Choking Techniques)

See the video below.

See the video below.

See the video below.

See the video below.

3-4. KANSETSU-WAZA (Joint lock Techniques)

See the video below.

See the video below.

See the video below.

3-5. ASHI-NUKI (Undo scissoring legs)

See the video below.

3-6. SEITAI-SHITA MEKURI (Sweep from Hook guard)

See the video below.

See the video below.

3-7. SEITAI-UE ASHI-KOE (pass-guard)

See the video below.

See the video below.

3-8. KAME-TORI (Turnover against turtle guard)

See the video below.

See the video below.

See the video below.

See the video below.

3-9. UTSUBUSE-TORI (Turnover against prone guard)

See the video below.

See the video below.

4. Knowledge [5 items]

JAPAN

JIGORO KANO

See IJF website [https://www.ijf.org/history/hall-of-fame/96]

1882

  • Maximum Efficiency with minimum effort: Seiryoku Zenyou「精力善用」
  • Mutual Welware and Benefit: Jita Kyouei「自他共栄」

Find Japan in world map

5. JAPANESE Terminologies [24 items]

Practice hall

bow, manners

Begin

Stop (in competition: go back to Hajime position)

Ultimate Point (Winning Point)

Defensive person (who takes TORI’s technique)

Offensive person (who execute a technique toward UKE)

A penalty score. 3 shidos will be “Hansoku-make”.

Ultimate penalty score. A match end by one’s penalty.

A score. Waza-ari is given for an effective throw which is not enough for Ippon, or Osae-komi for 10-19 seconds.

Pinning of the opponent.

Breaking the Osaekomi-waza.

Freeze the positions (do not move)

Even 

Repetitive training of entry of a throwing technique.

Free-practice(fighting) training.

Standing techniques.

Ground techniques.

A person who practices Judo

Judo uniform

Belt

Manners.

“I beg your kindness”. It’s said in the beginning of a practice of a day, or before a practice with a partner.

Thank you very much (for past things).